Hydroquinone and tretinoin are great for hyperpigmentation, melasma, dark spots and freckles.
Hydroquinone: Hydroquinone is classified therapeutically as a depigmenting agent. It is prepared from the reduction of p-benzoquinone with sodium bisulfite. It occurs as fine white needles that darken on exposure to air. Hydroquinone reacts with the functional parts of individual cells and effects cellular metabolism. It has cytotoxic (cell-killing or cell-damaging) activity on the pigment-producing cell of the skin, the melanocyte, as well as on many other cell types. The cell-toxic activity of hydroquinone is caused by a free-radical oxidation mechanism. Free radical development has the potential to damage the melanocyte on its own and may also damage neighboring cells or their physical structures.
Tretinoin: Retinoids, such as vitamin A and retinoic acid (RA) or tretinoin, were first used in combination with Hydroquinone to enhance the penetration of Hydroquinone (Klingman and Willis, 1975). The ability of tretinoin to depigment is based on its ability to disperse keratinocyte pigment granules, interfere with pigment transfer, and accelerate epidermal turnover and, therefore, pigment loss.
$59.95 - 99.95
$64.95 - 130.95
$39.95 - 149.95