Metronidazole: Metronidazole is classified therapeutically as an antiprotozoal and antibacterial agent
Niacinamide: The physiologic role of niacinamide is as a precursor to important cofactors: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphate derivative (NADP). These cofactors and their reduced forms (NADH and NADPH) serve as redox co-enzymes in many enzymatic reactions, and the reduced forms are anti-oxidants. Thus, it is possible that niacinamide has these multiple effects on skin indirectly as a result of its role as a co-enzyme precursor, although defining specifically how these dinucleotides fit mechanistically into all the observed skin effects is not clearly defined. Since NADH and NADPH are anti-oxidants and their levels can be increased with niacinamide, a possible effect of topical niacinamide is inhibition of oxidative processes such as protein oxidation (glycation).
Glycation (Maillard reaction) is a spontaneous oxidative reaction between protein and sugar, resulting in cross-linked proteins (Amedori products) that are yellowish-brown in color and are fluorescent. These products can accumulate in matrix components such as collagen that have long biological half-lives. There is thus potential for glycation to have a significant role in the normal aging-induced changes in skin appearance (e.g. yellowing of skin, also more technically described as skin sallowness) and for niacinamide to inhibit the appearance change.
$59.95 - 99.95
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